Ca², Ca, Calcio
El calcio es un mineral esencial, su importancia está relacionada con las funciones que desempeña en la mineralización ósea, especialmente en la salud de los huesos, desde la formación y mantenimiento de la estructura, hasta la rigidez del esqueleto. Su absorción se produce por transporte activo en el tracto digestivo, principalmente en el duodeno y yeyuno proximal. El cuerpo humano es incapaz de producir calcio y se requiere suplementación y / o consumo a través de la dieta.
- Origen: A base de plantas, producto animal, sintético
- Fuente: Leche, gérmenes de trigo, soja, frijoles, garbanzos, verduras, cacahuetes, nueces, nueces de Brasil, nueces de pacana, almendras, avellanas, avena, semillas de lino, sintéticas
- Tipo: Mineral
- Rango de edad: Adults (18-60), Seniors (>60)
- Toxicidad: Puede ser tóxico en dosis altas
- Outcomes: Salud de Los Huesos y Articulaciones, Densidad Ósea
What are Calcio benefits?
El calcio, ampliamente conocido por ser responsable de la fuerza de los huesos, es extremadamente importante en nuestro cuerpo. Hay una ingesta diaria recomendada de 1.000 mg / día, pero no siempre podemos ingerir esta cantidad. Con la suplementación con calcio, puede satisfacer las necesidades de su cuerpo sin preocupaciones, obteniendo beneficios no solo para los huesos, sino también en la contracción muscular, la estructura dental, la coagulación y el equilibrio del pH sanguíneo. ¡Responde nuestro cuestionario y consulta las instrucciones!
Table of relations
Published articles about Calcium and Densidad Ósea
Risedronate y Ergocalciferol previenen la fractura de cadera en hombres mayores con la enfermedad de Parkinson
Two years supplementation of 1,000 IU of vitamin D2 was unable to prevent hip fractures and preserve bone mineral density in persons with Parkinson's disease, while the active group of Risedronate plus vitamin D2 was effective.
Prevención de fracturas noverbrales con vitamina D y dependencia de dosis orales: un metanálisis de ensayos controlados aleatorios
The relative risk for bone fractures (nonvertebral) was reduced to a risk ratio of 0.86 (95% CI of 0.77-0.96), with a trend towards hip fractures being present but not being statistically significant. Both fracture risks were reduced when studies were controlled for studies above 400 IU only, with the protective effect on nonvertebral factures increasing somewhat.
La suplementación con 1000 IU Vitamina D / D conduce a la supresión de la hormona paratiroidea, pero no el aumento de la absorción de calcio fraccionaria, en niños de 4 a 8 años: un ensayo controlado aleatorio doble ciego
1000IU/day in children was successful in reducing parathyroid hormone concentrations but failed to significantly increase calcium absorption.
In a placebo-controlled trial with unclear randomization and blinding, 2525 soldiers were given 200 mg of ascorbic acid or placebo daily for 24 days. There weren't notable differences between groups for the rate of sickness. There was a somewhat lower severity reported in participants who were confirmed to have taken all of their vitamin C, but not those who were known to miss dosages, compared with the corresponding placebo with the same adherence status. There also weren't differences in other acute infections.
In a placebo-controlled trial with unclear randomization or blinding, 427 participants took either 200 mg of synthetic ascorbic acid daily, 200 mg for the first 2 weeks and 100 mg afterward with 500 on each of the first two days of a cold before resuming 100 mg daily, or placebo for 28 weeks. There was a small reduction in the number of colds in the vitamin C groups compared with placebo. The number of days lost from school was lower in the vitamin C group. 4.8% of participants in the vitamin C group reported adverse events whereas 1.3% did in the placebo group.
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 862 marine recruits were given 2000 mg of anhydrous vitamin C in two divided doses (morning and night) daily for 8 weeks. 674 participants finished the study and were analyzed. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups for the incidence of colds, duration of colds, or severity of colds.
La suplementación con vitamina C reduce la incidencia de los síntomas de postrace de la infección del tracto respiratorio superior en los corredores de ultramaratones
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 44 monozygotic twins were given 500, 750 or 1000 mg of vitamin C daily according to body weight (higher doses for heavier) or placebo for 5 months. Overall, there was no difference between vitamin C and placebo for the number of illness episodes, total sick days, severity, or days in bed, and only a slightly smaller duration in average episodes. The 500 mg group saw a greater reduction in duration than the other groups, but it wasn't particularly notable.
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial, 172 children were given 1000 mg of vitamin C daily or 30 mg of vitamin C as control for 7 weeks. There wasn't a statistically significant difference in nasal cold symptoms or upper respiratory tract infection between groups, but the duration of upper respiratory tract infections was significantly lower in the vitamin C group, and the duration of nasal cold symptoms was nonsignificantly lower. In another randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 642 were given 1000 mg of vitamin C daily or 10 mg of vitamin C as control from September to December. There were no statistically significant differences between groups for nasal cold symptoms or upper respiratory tract infection incidence or average duration, though absence from school due to upper respiratory tract infections was significantly lower in the vitamin C group.
Nivel de ácido ascórbico en sangre en bioflavonoides y terapia de ácido ascórbico del resfriado común
In a placebo-controlled trial with unclear blinding or randomization, 89 participants were given placebo, 195 mg of vitamin C, the 1 g of naringin, or the combination in 3 divided doses daily for 3 months. There wasn't a notable difference in the rate of colds between groups, though the vitamin C group saw the most colds cured or improved after 3 days.
Suplementación con vitamina C y infecciones del tracto respiratorio superior en los corredores de maratón
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 137 marathon-runners and sedentary participants were given 1000 mg of vitamin C or placebo daily at breakfast for two months prior to and one month following a marathon. 92 participants completed the trial, and there was a lower percentage of upper respiratory tract infections in the vitamin C group that ran marathons but not the vitamin C group that was sedentary. However, this wasn't statistically significant. There was a significantly longer mean duration of upper respiratory tract infections in the vitamin C group that ran marathons, with the others not being statistically significant. The participants in the vitamin C group that ran marathons reported more symptoms per infection but the difference wasn't statistically significant.
In a randomized, placebo-controlled trial with unclear blinding, 112 soldiers undergoing training in a Northern climate were given 1000 mg of vitamin C daily or placebo for an unclear amount of time. There were significantly fewer colds in the vitamin C group, while there was a nonsignificant reduction in nasal and throat/chest symptoms, while the duration of constitutional symptoms related to the feeling of well-being was significantly shorter in the vitamin C group.
In a randomized, controlled trial, 1524 participants were recruited and given 10 tablets with 1 g of ascorbic acid or placebo and instructed to take 4 tablets daily upon experiencing cold symptoms. 482 participants developed colds and took the intervention. There wasn't a notable difference in the duration of colds or the duration of runny nose, muscle ache, time in bed, or time off work. There were significantly fewer male participants who had 2 or more colds in the vitamin C group, but not female participants
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 323 participants who were prone to normal colds during cold season took placebo, 3000 mg of vitamin C daily (prophylactic), and 6000 mg (therapeutic) when experiencing a cold, or only prophylactic or therapeutic for 9 months. 199 participants completed the study. There was only a reduction in the rate of colds in the group that took vitamin C as a prophylactic but not as a therapeutic. While the lowest mean duration of colds was found in one of the prophylactic groups, the other was comparable to one of the placebo-prophylactic groups. The only statistically significant difference between groups for the specific symptoms were more fever in the placebo group than the therapeutic but not prophylactic group.
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial 622 participants took 500 mg tablets with sodium and calcium ascorbate in a 2:1 ratio, 500 mg of ascorbic acid in a sustained-release capsule, or placebo once weekly, and 1500 mg on the first day of sickness followed by 1000 on the next 4 days. 448 participants completed at least 2 months and were analyzed. Participants who completed spent, on average, 15 weeks in the study. There wasn't a notable difference between groups for the mean number of days experiencing any symptom. The vitamin C groups had fewer days confined indoors, and the capsule group had fewer sick days at work, but not the tablet group. Nasal symptoms weren't notably different, but sore throat was lower in the capsule group, while chest soreness, fever, shivering, and aches were lower in the vitamin C groups. However, the only statistically significant differences were sore throat for the capsule group, chest soreness for the tablet group, fever for both vitamin C, and shivering for the capsule group, compared with placebo,
La suplementación con vitamina C reduce las probabilidades de desarrollar un resfriado común en reclutas del ejército de la República de Corea: prueba controlada aleatorizada
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 1,668 military personnel were given 6,000 mg/day of vitamin C or placebo (in 3 divided doses after meals) daily for 30 days during cold season. There was a statistically significant reduction in the number of participants in the vitamin C group catching a cold compared with placebo. This effect was more reliable in never-smokers.
La efectividad de la vitamina C para prevenir y aliviar los síntomas de infecciones respiratorias inducidas por virus.
In a controlled trial, 252 students at a technical training facility, upon reporting flu symptoms, were given 1 g of vitamin C per hour for 6 hours on for up to 3 days followed by 1 g per day for the rest of the training period (10 days, or no intervention. Incidence of flu symptoms tended to decrease over the course of the trial in the vitamin C group, but not for the control group, suggesting that those who took vitamin C saw fewer overall days with cold symptoms, though it's unclear if this was statistically significant.
Los efectos del ácido ascórbico y los flavonoides en la aparición de síntomas normalmente asociados con el resfriado común.
In a randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 362 participants took orange juice, synthetic orange drink with comparable vitamin C content (80 mg), or the synthetic orange drink without vitamin C for 72 days. For the purpose of this entry, the relevant comparison is synthetic orange drink with and without vitamin C. There were significantly fewer symptoms in the vitamin C group, and nonsignificantly more symptom-free days.
In a placebo-controlled trial, 182 participants took placebo or 3 g of vitamin C daily in 3 divided doses for 3 days prior to viral exposure with the intent of producing a cold and took the supplements for 6 days after. There was no difference in the incidence of colds between groups, nor the severity or duration.
Prevención del resfriado común con un suplemento de vitamina C: una encuesta de doble ciego y controlado con placebo
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 168 participants took 1000 mg of vitamin C or placebo daily for 60 days. The average duration of symptoms was significantly lower in the vitamin C group and as was the total number of colds.
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 400 participants were given 1 g, 3 g, or 3 g with 150 mg rutin, hesperidin, acerola, and 75 mg bioflavonoids and 750 mg rosehip extract at on the first day experiencing cold symptoms and for 2 days afterward. The study lasted for 18 months. 323 participants received the supplements/placebo and 149 returned the completed surveys and were analyzed. The vitamin C groups saw greater sickness durations than the placebo group, which held for cough, nasal symptoms, throat symptoms, and systemic symptoms. The severity score was also higher in the vitamin C groups. None of this was statistically significant, however.
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 1000 people who normally experienced at least one cold during cold season were given 1000 mg of vitamin C daily until the first infection and 4000 for the first 3 days. The treatment lasted for 3 or four months. 818 were able to be analyzed due to completing at least two months. The primary outcomes were cold frequency and duration, and there were fewer colds in the vitamin C group, but the difference wasn't statistically significant, and a shorter duration of symptoms, but this also wasn't statistically significant. The reduction in days confined to one's house was significantly lower in the vitamin C group, however. There were somewhat fewer episodes of nose and throat symptoms in the vitamin C group but not other respiratory or non-respiratory symptoms, and the duration was lower.
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 311 participants were given placebo, 3000 mg (3 divided doses daily) of vitamin C, placebo until the development of a cold and then vitamin C during the cold (therapeutic), or vitamin C until the development of a cold and then placebo for 9 months (prophylactic). Only 190 participants completed the trial. There was a reduction in the number of colds compared with other groups in the group that received vitamin D as a prophylactic but not for therapeutic purposes, while the group that received vitamin C the entire time was compared to the therapeutic-only group, though lower than the double placebo group. The duration of colds was lowest in the group that received vitamin C both as a prophylactic and as a therapeutic, while the longest was the double-placebo group.
El efecto de la vitamina C en las infecciones respiratorias superiores en los nadadores de los adolescentes: un ensayo aleatorio
Vitamin C supplementation was unable to influence the risk of developing upper respiratory tract infections, but was able to reduce the time having an UTI by 22% in both gender (nonsignificant) and 47% in males (significant). Reasoning behind this sexual dimorphism is unknown. Sample was competitive adolescent swimmers of both genders using 1g vitamin C daily
Influencia de la ingesta aguda de vitamina C y / o carbohidratos en las respuestas hormonales, citocinas e inmunes a un ejercicio prolongado
When vitamin C was preloaded before exercise, it was able to increase blood vitamin C levels but was unable to reduce cortisol or improve immune system parameters when participants were subejct to 2.5 hours of cycling at 60% VO2 max.
La suplementación con la suplementación con vitamina C y la función inmune salival después del estrés por calor del ejercicio
1500mg Vitamin C over 12 days in people exercising in a manner to induce susceptibility to sickness (cycling to exhaustion in a heated environment) was able to reduce the cortisol spike associated with exercise but had no significant influence on risk of upper respiratory tract infection.
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 95 pairs of twins were randomly allocated to take (each twin either received vitamin C or placebo) 1 g of vitamin C daily or placebo for 100 days during Australia's winter season. All participants were also given a multivitamin with 70 mg of vitamin C in order to eliminate the effects of deficiency. There was a similar incidence of colds, but a statistically significantly shorter duration in the vitamin C group and nonsignificantly lower severity.
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 295 participants were given 1 g of sodium ascorbate or placebo daily for 3 months. 52 participants dropped out and weren't analyzed. There wasn't a notable difference in the number of days free of symptoms between groups or the number of episodes.
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 1,082 participants took 3 g of vitamin c daily for placebo until 10 g had been taken upon experiencing a cold. There wasn't a notable difference in the number of colds between placebo and vitamin C groups, and the average duration was notably shorter for men but notably longer for women. For chest colds, men in the vitamin C group saw longer durations of sickness, and as did women but the difference for women was less than for colds overall.
In a randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 923 participants were given 1 g of vitamin c or placebo daily for 100 days. 688 completed the trial and were analyzed. There were fewer colds in the vitamin C group, though the difference was small. The number of chest colds was lower in the vitamin C group, whereas the number of simple colds was more comparable. There was also a small reduction in the duration of the average cold in the vitamin C group compared with the placebo group.
In a placebo-controlled trial, 944 children took 1 g of vitamin c daily or placebo for 15 weeks. There was no notable difference in the rate of respiratory infections or duration of sickness. Participants within each group who had higher vitamin C levels had longer sickness episodes.
In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 666 children took 1g of vitamin c if below 10 years old and 2 g if older, or placebo for 14 weeks. There wasn't a difference between groups for the number of respiratory infection episodes, but the duration of episodes was significantly shorter in the vitamin C group.
In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 255 participants were given 1 g of l-ascorbic acid, 1 g of d-isoascorbic acid or placebo daily for 15 weeks. 211 participants completed the study. there weren't notable differences between groups for placebo and vitamin C, but D-lsoascorbic acid, saw a statistically significant reduction. Sex differences didn't have an effect on efficacy. There wasn't a notable difference between any groups for duration.
In a placebo-controlled trial, 95 participants were given 1 g of ascorbic acid (4 divided doses daily) or placebo for 15 weeks. There was a lower frequency of developing a cold and colds were somewhat less frequent in the vitamin C group.
Efecto de la suplementación con vitamina C sobre la peroxidación de lípidos, el daño muscular y la inflamación después de 30 minutos de ejercicio a 75% VO2MAX
1g of vitamin C before exercise (30 minutes aerobic exercise at 75% VO2 max) was able to reduce oxidation during exercise and markers of muscle damage. There was an acute increase in immune cell count following exercise (thought to be due to less immunosuppression), which may have preceded less muscle damage (assessed by creatine kinase) 24 hours after exercise. The reduction in cortisol may have also played a role.
El efecto de 2 semanas de suplementación con vitamina C en las respuestas inmunotocrinas a 2,5 h. Ejercicio de ciclismo en el hombre
1g of Vitamin C daily for 2 weeks prior to cycling exercise (2.5h in trained men at 60% VO2 max) was unable to influence cortisol or immunological parameters
Suplemento de calcio, densidad mineral ósea y contenido mineral óseo. Predictores de cambios de masa ósea en madres adolescentes durante el período posparto de 6 meses
Supplementation of calcium either via food products (932mg calcium) or via tablet supplementation (1000mg) were both equally effective in increasing bone mineral density and content relative to baseline in postpartum women. No placebo group was used.
La vitamina D de dosis baja previene la atrofia muscular y reduce las fracturas de caídas y cadera en mujeres después del accidente cerebrovascular: un ensayo controlado aleatorizado
1,000 IU of Vitamin (D2) for 2 years that improved serum Vitamin D from the deficient range into the sufficient range reduced falls (59%) and appeared to reduce muscular atrophy as assessed by more type II fibers and muscle strength.
Vitamina D mensual de la dosis alta para la prevención de la infección respiratoria aguda en los residentes de cuidado a largo plazo más antiguos: un ensayo clínico aleatorio
In a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial, 107 elderly participants in long-term care facilities took 400-1000 IU or 3,000-4000 IU of vitamin D daily, while participants who were already taking vitamin D were given 100,000 IU or 12,000 IU monthly. This persisted for one year. 36 participants didn't complete the study but were included in the intention to treat analysis. The primary outcome was the total number of acute respiratory infections and the incidence of infections was significantly lower in the high dose group compared with the standard-dose group. The reduction derived from upper but now lower respiratory tract infections. There was a significantly higher rate of falls in the vitamin D group, but not fractures, hospitalizations, or deaths. The mean serum vitamin D levels were 23.0 ng/ml in both groups at baseline and increased to roughly 34 on the high dose and roughly 26 in the low dose group.
Una dosis más alta de vitamina D reduce el riesgo de caídas en los residentes domésticos de ancianos: un estudio aleatorizado de dosis múltiples
This dose response study suggested that 800IU was the lowest effective dose to significantly reduce fall risk in the elderly, with the 44-60% risk of falls in the lower dose and placebo groups being reduced to 20% over 5 months of study.
Prevención de caídas con formas suplementarias y activas de vitamina D: un metanálisis de ensayos controlados aleatorios
This meta-analysis noted that high dose (700-1000 IU) Vitamin D reduced fall risk by 19% (95% CI of 0.71 to 0.92) with studies measuring serum Vitamin D above 60nmol/L noting a slightly more protective effect. Lower doses were not effective.
Megadosa de vitamina C retrasa la respuesta de insulina a un desafío de glucosa en adultos normoglucemiantes
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial, 9 healthy, young adults received either 2 g/d of vitamin C or placebo for 2 weeks for each stage. There was a two week placebo-only lead-in period prior to supplementation and a two week washout period before crossover. Subjects were assessed by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with 75 g of sucrose at the end of each two week supplementation period. During the study period, all subjects were asked to avoid foods high in vitamin C. The OGTT involved blood tests at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 3.0 hours after consumption of sucrose. The area under the curve for plasma glucose was greater while taking vitamin C, but the difference wasn't statistically significant. Only at 1 hour into the OGTT was there a statistically significant difference, with the vitamin C group being higher than placebo. For plasma insulin, there was no statistically significant difference between groups for the overall area under the curve, but the placebo group was significantly higher at 0.5 hours and the vitamin C group was significantly higher at 2.0 hours. Fasting glucose wasn't different between vitamin C and placebo, and plasma vitamin C levels were 81% greater during vitamin C supplementation.
Influencia de la suplementación con vitamina C sobre cambios oxidativos e inmunes después de un ultramaratón
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, ultramarathon runners took 500 mg of vitamin C three times per day (1.5 g/d) or placebo for 7 days prior to a race and 500 mg before the race began. 28 participants complied with all protocols and were analyzed. As expected, vitamin C in plasma was higher in the vitamin C group. There was a statistically significant difference in uric acid levels between groups, with the placebo group seeing an increase and the vitamin C group seeing no change. There were no statistically significant differences between groups for lipid hydroperoxide, F2-isoprostane, serum glucose, insulin (although there was a notable reduction in the placebo group and increase in the vitamin C group), cortisol, or measures of immune cells or cytokines.
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over trial, 10 healthy male subjects received intravenous administration of 24 mg vitamin C every minute or placebo during intravenous elevation of free fatty acid levels with Intralipid and heparin. Vitamin C significantly attenuated the impairment of endothelium-independent vasodilation compared with placebo but didn't show a significant effect on endothelium-dependent vasodilation, glucose, or insulin levels. Of course, vitamin C levels were higher in the vitamin C group. No adverse events were reported during the experiment.
La vitamina C de la dosis alta, la vitamina C parcialmente repone los niveles de vitamina C en pacientes con diabetes tipo 2 y niveles bajos de vitamina C, pero no mejora la disfunción endotelial o la resistencia a la insulina
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 37 participants (32 completed) were assigned to take either 800 mg of vitamin C per day or placebo for 4 weeks. Participants were screened beforehand to ensure that they had low vitamin C levels and were encouraged to avoid vitamin C from food or supplements during the study. Despite a large increase in vitamin C levels after supplementation, were no statistically significant differences between groups for fasting glucose, insulin, insulin sensitivity, or vasodilation.
Detección molecular de radicales libres inducidos por el ejercicio después de la profilaxis de ascorbato en la diabetes Mellitus tipo 1: un ensayo controlado aleatorizado
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 12 male type-1 diabetic and 14 healthy male participants took a single dose of 1 g vitamin C or placebo prior to an exercise test on a cycle ergometer. The test was to voluntary exhaustion, incremental, and progressive. Blood samples were taken before and after exercise. There were no statistically significant differences between vitamin C and placebo in either type-1 diabetic or healthy participants for, V0₂ peak, respiratory exchange ratio, heart rate, rate of perceived exertion, power output, exercise time, or glucose levels. Vitamin C supplementation led to a significant reduction in free radicals and lipid hydroperoxides induced by exercise.
Influencia de la suplementación con vitamina C sobre los cambios de IgA oxidativos y salivales después de un ultramaratón
In athletes given 1,500mg Vitamin C daily for a week prior to a marathon (and then extra supplemental Vitamin C throughout the race), post-exercise cortisol had its spike exacerbated after the race but failed to influence immune parameters (salivary IgA).
El ácido ascórbico de la dosis alta aumenta la frecuencia de intercalas y mejora el estado de ánimo: un ensayo clínico controlado aleatorizado
Supplementation of 3,000mg time released Vitamin C daily for two weeks has been noted to, in otherwise healthy adults, to decrease depression symptoms on the BDI (down 1.56 points from 4.8; scale is a 0-17 scale) and increase intercourse frequency (from 4 times a month to 14; placebo dropped from 6 to 4). There was no influence on frequency of masturbation.
El pretratamiento con ácido ascórbico intravenoso conserva la función endotelial durante la hiperglucemia aguda (R1)
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over trial, 9 healthy, male participants were tested on two separate occasions 2-3 weeks apart. The effect of an acute dose of 2 g of vitamin C or placebo administered intravenously was tested under artificial hyperglycemia, achieved through intravenous dextrose to maintain blood glucose of 14 mmol/L, while basal insulin levels were maintained by intravenous octreotide. Forearm blood flow was measured in response to infusions of acetylcholine (for endothelium-dependent vasodilation), and sodium nitroprusside (or endothelium-independent vasodilation). Vitamin C led to a notable, statistically significant attenuation of the increase in mean arterial pressure and forearm vascular resistance and the reduction in forearm blood flow due to hyperglycemia. Endothelial function was impaired by hyperglycemia in the placebo group but the change was completely abolished in the vitamin C group. *Glucose and insulin measures excluded due to artificial stabilization in the lab.
La suplementación de la vitamina C reduce la glucosa en la sangre y mejora la hemoglobina glicosilada en la diabetes Mellitus tipo 2: un estudio aleatorizado y doble ciego
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 70 participants with type 2 diabetes who were taking metformin received 500 mg of vitamin C twice daily (1000 mg per day) or a placebo. After 12 weeks, the participants who received vitamin C saw a modest and significant reduction in fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose, and Hba1c compared with the placebo group. All of the participants in the study were advised to minimize foods rich in vitamin C in their diets throughout the study. This, however, didn't reduce plasma vitamin C concentrations in the placebo group, while the vitamin C group saw a significant increase.
El efecto de la suplementación con vitamina C sobre la hiperlipidaemia diabética: un estudio doble ciego, cruce
In a randomized, double-blind crossover study, 50 type 2 diabetes patients took 500 mg/d of vitamin C or placebo for 2 months per treatment. There were no statistically significant changes in fasting blood sugar, HbA1c, cholesterol, or blood pressure between the groups. Triglycerides were modestly and significantly lower in the vitamin C period of one of the stages of the crossover trial but not the other.
Eficacia del tratamiento antioxidante en la reducción de los niveles séricos de resistencia: un estudio aleatorio
In a randomized, open label, controlled (but not placebo-controlled) trial, eighty healthy participants received either 2 g of ascorbic acid or no supplementation for two weeks. The primary outcome was serum resistin. At the end of two weeks, the vitamin C group saw a large, statistically significant reduction in resistin and nitrotyrosine compared with the control group. The vitamin C group also saw an increase in oxidized glutathione and plasma vitamin C. No statistically significant changes were observed for fasting glucose, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting insulin, or CRP. Two participants in the vitamin C group complained of gastric discomfort while none did in the control group.
Capacitación de monohidratos y resistencia de creatina Aumente el contenido de minerales óseos y la densidad en hombres mayores
Older men aged 71 were studied. Dosages used was a loading period of 0.3g/kg bodyweight for 5 days and 0.07g/kg afterwards as maintenance. Improvements in lean mass and bone mineral density over 12 weeks, when combined with resistance training, as measured by DEXA.
45mg of MK-4 daily in postmenopausal women (also given 1,500mg calcium carbonate, which placebo also received) for the course of 10 months was able to increase bone mineral density.
Un estudio longitudinal del efecto de la vitamina K2 en la densidad mineral ósea en las mujeres posmenopáusicas, un estudio comparativo con la vitamina D3 y la terapia de progestina de estrógeno.
Supplemental MK-4 at 45mg daily is able to prevent the losses in spinal bone mineral density over the course of one year relative to no treatment, although relative to the active control (estrogen replacement therapy) it underperformed.
500mcg of phylloquinone daily for 3 years was unable to significantly reduce IL-6 concentrations despite being inversely correlated at baseline, and both C-reactive protein and OPG appeared to also be unaffected with treatment.
Factores que afectan la pérdida ósea en atletas de resistencia femenina: un estudio de seguimiento de dos años
In female athletes at severe risk for bone loss, vitamin K as phylloquinone (10mg) either with or without added estrogen failed to reduce the rate of bone loss over the course of 10 months.
Un estudio controlado aleatorizado de los efectos de la suplementación de óxido de magnesio en la dieta en el contenido de minerales óseos en niñas sanas
An increased bone mineral content was seen in female youth given 300mg magnesium oxide daily for one year, when given to girls with low dietary magnesium intake.
50 mg/kg/day (approximately 3.5 g, alongside 30 g of sucrose) for 6 weeks increased the circulating triglycerides and body fat percentage (+0.17%) of martial artists, but not their fat mass. Lactate and liver enzymes were lower, relative to placebo, but not to a significant extent.
La suplementación con monohidrato de creatina no aumenta la fuerza muscular, la masa corporal magra o la fosfocreatina muscular en pacientes con distrofia myotónica tipo 1
5 g/day for 4 months in individuals with myotonic dystrophy type I (DM1) failed to improve muscular strength (handgrip) or lung function (FEV1) relative to placebo, nor was there any influence on functional tests or biochemical parameters.
El suplemento de vitamina K2 dietética mejora el estado óseo después del trasplante de pulmón y corazón
In persons subject to either heart or lung transplant surgery then given supplemental MK-7 after the surgery (180mcg), it was found that bone mineral density losses over the course of the next year were lower in the vitamin K supplemented group than in control.
La vitamina K2 (menatetrenona) evita efectivamente las fracturas y sostiene la densidad mineral ósea lumbar en la osteoporosis
45mg of MK-4 daily for 2 years in persons with osteoporosis is able to reduce both the fracture rate as well as prevent the losses of bone mineral density in the spinal region relative to placebo. There was a trend to increase bone mineral density after the 2 year period, but this failed to reach statistical significance and was small in magnitude.
500mcg of phylloquinone (in addition to calcium and vitamin D, although placebo was also given calcium and vitamin D thus the only intragroup difference was phylloquinone) failed to significantly improve bone mineral density over three years despite improving vitamin K status.
La suplementación con vitamina K2 (MK-4) de baja dosis para 12 meses mejora el metabolismo óseo y evita la pérdida ósea del antebrazo en las mujeres japonesas posmenopáusicas
Forearm bone mineral density was unchanged with supplementation of 1.5mg of MK-4 over the course of a year whereas placebo experienced a decrease in bone mineral density.
La suplementación de menáquinone-7 de dos años de baja dosis ayuda a disminuir la pérdida ósea en mujeres postmenopáusicas saludables
180μg of MK-7 daily for a period of three years in otherwise healthy postmenopausal women was able to increase circulating carboxylated osteocalcin (21+/-19% increase seen with MK-7 and none in placebo) and decreased the uncarboxylated osteocalcin (51+/-21%) within one year (maintained for two years) which was associated with a preservation of femoral and spine bone mineral density (no influence on hip) and increase in bone strength, there were less fractures associated with MK-7 relative to placebo.
Prueba piloto aleatorizado de vitamina K2 para la pérdida ósea en pacientes con cirrosis biliar primaria
Supplementation of 45mg MK-4 daily for 24 months in postmenopausal women with primary biliary cirrhosis was able to attenuate the percentage of bone loss
La vitamina K2 inhibe la pérdida ósea inducida por el glucocorticoide en parte al prevenir la reducción de osteoproteína (OPG)
Glucocorticoid induced bone loss in persons with chronic glomerulonephritis given 15mg MK-4 daily for a year was reduced relative to control, suggesting a bone preserving effect.
Efecto de la terapia combinada continua con la vitamina K (2) y la vitamina D (3) sobre la densidad mineral ósea y la función de coagulofibrinolisis en mujeres posmenopáusicas
45mg of MK-7 daily for 24 months has been noted to very slightly increase bone mineral density, which was significant relative to control (that experienced a decline in BMD over the trial). Combination therapy of vitamin K and vitamin D outperformed vitamin K alone, but a large degree of variability was still noted.
La suplementación con vitamina K2 mejora la geometría de hueso de la cadera y los índices de fuerza ósea en las mujeres posmenopáusicas
45mg of MK-4 daily for a period of three years in postmenopausal women (at least 5 years in menopause at the start of the trial) was able to increase bone mineral circumference but failed to affect density _per se_. Although technically not an increase in density, the authors noted that the end result was protective against fractures and falls.
El tratamiento con vitamina K reduce la osteocalcina subcarboxilada, pero no altera la rotación, la densidad o la geometría ósea en mujeres sanas postmenopáusicas norteamericanas
Two separate groups (phylloquinone at 1,000mcg or MK4 at 45mg) both failed to reduce the rate of bone mineral density losses over time, despite improving vitamin K status as assessed by uncarboxylated osteocalcin over 12 months of supplementation.
La suplementación con vitamina K1 retrasa la pérdida ósea en las mujeres posmenopáusicas entre los 50 y los 60 años de edad.
In postmenopausal women, 1 mg of phylloquinone for 36 months was able to attenuate the rate of bone mineral density loss over time, but the effect was so unreliable that it failed to reach statistical significance. (Both the phylloquinone group and the control group were given calcium and vitamin D.)
La densidad ósea o densidad mineral ósea (DMO) es la cantidad de mineral óseo en el tejido óseo. La medición de la densidad mineral ósea se utiliza en medicina como indicador indirecto de osteoporosis y riesgo de fracturas.