Coenzima Q10, CoQ10
La coenzima Q10 es un compuesto que se encuentra en las mitocondrias que proporciona energía a las células del cuerpo y también juega un papel importante en el sistema antioxidante endógeno. Es similar a otros compuestos pseudovitamínicos, por lo que es esencial para la supervivencia. El cuerpo produce naturalmente esta coenzima, pero sus niveles normalmente se reducen con la edad. La suplementación con coenzima Q10 puede mejorar los riesgos de enfermedades cardiovasculares, trastornos cerebrales, diabetes, cáncer y función sanguínea, lo que lleva a una reducción de la presión arterial.
- Origen: Sintético, no esencial
- Fuente: Leche, huevos, carne, pescado, cacahuetes, nueces, nueces de Brasil, nuez de pacana, almendras, coco, avellana, no esenciales, sintéticos
- Tipo: Pseudovitamina
- Rango de edad: Adults (18-60), Seniors (>60)
- Toxicidad: Puede ser tóxico en dosis altas.
- Outcomes: Salud Cardiovascular, Protección del Corazón
What are CoQ10 benefits?
La COQ10, conocida como coenzima Q10, es una molécula que se encuentra en las mitocondrias y que juega un papel esencial en la Potencia Muscular para el cuerpo y también es importante para el sistema antioxidante endógeno. La coenzima Q10 se puede encontrar en una variedad de alimentos, pero está más concentrada en la carne y el pescado. Según estudios realizados, la producción de CoQ10 disminuye a medida que el ser humano envejece. Por lo tanto, los ancianos parecen tener deficiencia de este compuesto. Además, la evidencia científica ha demostrado una amplia gama de beneficios relacionados con la CoQ10, tales como: ayudar a tratar la insuficiencia cardíaca; ayuda con la fertilidad; ayudar a mantener la piel más joven; ayuda con el rendimiento del ejercicio; ayudar con la diabetes (mejorar la sensibilidad a la insulina y regular los niveles de azúcar en sangre ayudan); ayudar a proteger sus pulmones; reducir los dolores de cabeza; prevenir el cáncer; y mejorar la salud del cerebro, debido al hecho de que las mitocondrias son los principales generadores de energía de las células cerebrales.
Table of relations
Published articles about CoQ10 and Protección del Corazón
Pycnogenol, extracto marítimo francés de la corteza de pino, mejora la función endotelial de los pacientes hipertensos.
A double-blind, placebo controlled study of 58 patients with hypertension evaluated the ability of pycnogenol (100 mg/ day over 12 weeks) to reduce the required dose of the anti-hypertensive medication nifedipine. The study found that subjects in the pycnogenol group were able to reduce the dose of nifedipine required to restore blood pressure levels to normal. While the placebo group required on average 21.5 mg of nifedipine to remain normotensive, the pycnogenol group required only 15 mg, a reduction of 6.5 mg.[PMID: 14659974]. The effects of pycnogenol alone on blood pressure were not evaluated in this study (since all patients remained on their current meds). Pycnogenol supplementation was also associated with improved blood flow and trended towards higher NO levels in serum. The evidence does suggest that pycnogenol has a modest blood pressure lowering effect that may complement the effects of other anti-hypertensive medications.
Efectos de Pycnogenol sobre la función endotelial en pacientes con enfermedad de la arteria coronaria estable: un estudio cruzado, aleatorizado, controlado por placebo, controlado por placebo.
In persons with Coronary Artery Disease, Pycnogenol at 200mg daily for 8 weeks is associated with an improvement of blood flow independent of changes in blood pressure
Pycnogenol, extracto marítimo francés de la corteza de pino, aumenta la vasodilatación dependiente del endotelio en humanos
180mg of Pycnogenol for 2 weeks in otherwise healthy adult men was able to increase the acetylcholine-induced relaxation response in blood vessels, secondary to nitric oxide
Supplementation of 80mg/kg glutamine in persons with chronic stable angina was associated with improved endurance and performance on a Bruce test when taken 40 minutes prior; this occurred alongside a plasma increase in glutamine.
At 0.125g/kg bodyweight, glutamine supplementation did not influence exercise capacity or markers of oxidative metabolism in person with COPD.
D Ribosa mejora la función diastólica y la calidad de vida en pacientes con insuficiencia cardíaca congestiva: un estudio de viabilidad prospectivo
This study used an exhaustive week-long exercise protocol (two sessions of cycling daily) where after the last session, as well as nine times more over the next three days, either the experimental group (200mg/kg D-ribose paired with 200mg/kg sucrose at each dose) or control group (200mg/kg maltodextrin replacing the D-ribose) were assessed after three days rest. Inclusion of D-ribose was associated with a greater rate of ATP replenishment in the tested muscle after three days when compared to placebo, and no difference between groups was noted after a single day of rest. No differences in glycogen resynthesis rates between D-ribose and maltodextrin. This was a crossover study.
El efecto de L-Carnitine en los biomarcadores del síndrome metabólico: una revisión sistemática y un metanálisis de ensayos controlados aleatorios
This was a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials investigating the effects of l-carnitine for at least two weeks on metabolic syndrome outcomes, including waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, triglycerides, and HDL. The studies had to be without the use of other drugs. It included 9 trials that included 508 participants. Doses ranged from 0.75 to 3 g per day and 2 g was the most common dose. The studies weren't generally at a high risk of bias, but none stood out as particularly rigorous. Based on two studies, there was a statistically significant reduction in waist circumference and systolic but not quite diastolic blood pressure. There was a statistically reduction in fasting glucose, triglycerides, and anHDL increase based on 5-6 studies, though the differences weren't statistically significant. The subgroup analysis found greater effects for more severe metabolic syndrome and greater effects for higher carnitine doses, but the comparisons were based on few studies.
Efectos de la suplementación con la coenzima Q10 sobre la función mitocondrial del hígado y la capacidad aeróbica en los atletas adolescentes
After supplementation of 100mg CoQ10 daily, serum levels of CoQ10 were increased while they were decreased in the placebo group due to exercise. Normalized oxidation rates were seen with CoQ10 while increases in oxidation and lipid peroxidation were seen in placebo. Despite the above beneficial trends, no significant effects on exercise performance were noted.
In a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial, 15 exercise-trained participants took 300 mg of ubiquinol daily and placebo for four weeks, separated by a 3-week washout period. Participants maintained their exercise routines and were subjected to graded exercise tests on treadmills and cycle sprint tests on a cycle ergometer. There were no statistically significant differences in heart rate, perceived exertion, or time on the treadmill test, and no statistically significant differences in heart rate, perceived exertion, peak power, mean power, or total work on the cycling test. There were no statistically significant differences in malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide, or total cholesterol at rest, nor were there statistically significant differences in malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide, or lactate during the exercise tests.
In persons with chronic heart failure, CoQ10 at 300mg daily (in three divided dosages) was able to increase functional capacity and endothelial function after 4 weeks of supplementation. Benefits of CoQ10 on one of the parameters of heart health (systolic wall thickening index) was synergistic with exercise.
Efecto de la administración de la coenzima Q10 sobre la función endotelial y la superóxido extracelular dismutasa en pacientes con enfermedad cardíaca isquémica: un estudio controlado aleatorizado de doble ciego.
CoQ10 was shown to increase endothelial function secondary to extracellular Superoxide dismustase activity, and was hypothesized to negate adverse effects of nitric oxide oxidation. Improvements in VO(2) max were seen in this population of persons with ischaemic heart disease at 100mg daily.
Efectos de la suplementación con L-carnitina en los perfiles de lípidos en pacientes con enfermedad de la arteria coronaria
In a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 47 CAD patients took 1 g of L-carnitine or placebo daily for 12 weeks. There was statistically significantly greater superoxide dismutase activity, HDL, and APO-A1 in the carnitine group, though it's unclear if this was due to differences at baseline. There weren't statistically significant differences for total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL or Apo-B.
Efectos del tratamiento combinado con simvastatina y l-carnitina en los niveles de triglicéridos en pacientes diabéticos con hiperlipidaemia.
In a randomized, open-label trial, 32 patients with type 2 diabetes and abnormal lipid concentrations took 4 g of L-carnitine or placebo with simvastatin daily for 2 months. There was a statistically significant greater reduction in triglycerides in the carnitine group. There was a nonsignificant greater increase in HDL and reduction in total cholesterol.
L-carnitina / simvastatina reduce los niveles de lipoproteína (a) en comparación con la monoterapia de simvastatina: un estudio controlado por placebo doble ciego aleatorio
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial 58 participants with hyperlipidemia took 2 g of L-carnitine daily with simvastatin or just simvastatin for 12 weeks. Participants followed a low-calorie weight loss diet. The primary outcome was the change in Lp(a), and there was a statistically significantly greater reduction in the carnitine group. There weren't statistically significant or meaningful differences for total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL, Apolipoprotein A-1, or Apolipoprotein B.
Eficacia de la suplementación con L-carnitina para la gestión de lípidos sanguíneos: una revisión sistemática y un metanálisis de la dosis-respuesta de los ensayos controlados aleatorios
This was a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials investigating the impact of carnitine supplements on lipid profile. In total, 55 trials were included. There was a statistically significant reduction in total cholesterol, LDL, and triglycerides when taking carnitine. There was a small, statistically significant increase in HDL.
Efecto de la suplementación con carnitina sobre la progresión de la placa carotídea en el síndrome metabólico: el estudio de ECOM
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 177 participants with metabolic syndrome took 2 g of L-carnitine or placebo daily for 6 months. There wasn't a statistically significant difference for total plaque volume, but plaque stenosis increased significantly more in the carnitine group than the placebo group. Total and LDL cholesterol were higher in the L-carnitine group.
El efecto de la L-carnitina en los niveles de lipoproteína plasmática (a) en pacientes hipercolesterolémicos con diabetes mellitus tipo 2
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 94 participants with hypercholesterolemia and type 2 diabetes took 2 g of L-carnitine or placebo daily for 6 months. There was a statistically significant greater reduction in lipoprotein A in the carnitine group. There weren't statistically significant differences between groups for BMI, fasting glucose, postprandial glucose, HbA1c, fasting insulin, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, Apo A-1, or Apo B.
La suplementación con carnitina oral reduce el peso corporal y la resistencia a la insulina en las mujeres con el síndrome de ovario poliquístico: un ensayo aleatorizado, doble ciego y controlado con placebo
This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial investigated the effectiveness of L-carnitine on weight loss, and glycaemic and lipid profiles in females with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). For 12 weeks, the intervention group (n = 30) took 250 mg/day L-carnitine while the control group (n = 30) took a placebo. At the studies end, the L-carnitine saw small to moderate improvements in weight, BMI, WC, HC, and glycaemic control. It did not affect lipid profiles or free testosterone.
Eficacia y tolerabilidad del tratamiento combinado con L-carnitina y simvastatina en la reducción de los niveles de suero de lipoproteína (a) en pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2
In a randomized, open-label trial, 52 participants with type 2 diabetes and high Lp(A) levels took simvastatin alone or with 2 g of L-carnitine for 60 days. There was a statistically significant greater reduction in lipoprotein A in the combination group, though no superior for the rest of the lipid profile, including total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, non-HDL, triglycerides, and apolipoprotein B.
Efecto de L-carnitina sobre el perfil plasma glucémico y lipidemico en pacientes con diabetes tipo II Mellitus
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 35 participants with type 2 diabetes who were taking anti-diabetic drugs took a placebo or 3 g of L-carnitine daily divided into 3 doses, one at each meal, for 12 weeks. There was a statistically significantly greater reduction in fasting glucose and an increase in triglycerides and Apo B and Apo A-I in the carnitine group. There wasn't a statistically significant difference for HbA1c, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, or Lp(a).
Efectos de la simvastatina y la carnitina versus simvastatina en la lipoproteína (a) y la apoproteína (a) en la diabetes mellitus tipo 2
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 75 participants with type 2 diabetes took simvastatin with or without 2 g of carnitine daily for 4 months. There was a statistically significantly greater reduction in blood glucose, triglycerides, ApoA1, LP(a), and Apo(a), and an increase in HDL. There wasn't a statistically significant difference in BMI or HbA1c.
In a randomized, controlled trial, 81 participants with type 2 diabetes took 2 g of L-carnitine daily or placebo in combination with seeing a dietician and consuming a low-fat weight-loss diet for 3 months. The primary outcome was change in lipid profile, and the carnitine group saw a greater, statistically significant improvement in total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, and Apolipoprotein B-100, and an increase in Apolipoprotein A1. There was a greater, statistically significant reduction in oxidized LDL cholesterol in the carnitine group, as well as a general reduction in oxidative stress.
Efecto de la lisina, vitamina B (6) y suplementos de carnitina en el perfil lipídico de pacientes masculinos con hipertrigliceridemia: una prueba de 12 semanas, etiqueta abierta, aleatorizada y controlada por placebo
In a randomized, open-label, placebo-controlled trial, 40 participants with hypertriglyceridemia took 1 g of carnitine, placebo, or various other supplements (which won't be mentioned, for our purposes, the relevant comparison is carnitine vs. placebo) for 12 weeks. There wasn't a statistically significant difference for change in weight, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and fasting glucose.
In a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial, 50 participants with hyperthyroidism took 2 or 4 g of carnitine daily for the first 4 months, placebo for the last 2 months, or 2 months of placebo followed by 2 months of carnitine, followed by 2 more months of placebo, while taking T4. There was also a control group that didn't receive carnitine. In both groups, all symptoms improved statistically significantly besides body weight; these include asthenia, dyspnea, palpitations, nervousness, insomnia, tremors, knee reflexes, and body weight. Asthenia improved significantly more in the group that received 2 months of 4 g of carnitine relative to 2 g, and there were no statistically significant differences in symptoms by dose for the other measures. Total cholesterol and urinary OH-P in the 2-month group and urinary OH-P in the 4-month group. Bone mineral density was improved by carnitine but the difference wasn't statistically significant compared with control.
Suplemento L-carnitina para la gestión de la fatiga en pacientes con hipotiroidismo en el tratamiento de levotiroxina: un ensayo aleatorizado, doble ciego y controlado con placebo
In 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 60 participants with primary hypothyroidism who were taking levothyroxine took 1 g of l-carnitine daily or placebo. The primary outcome was fatigue, and there was a statistically significantly greater reduction in mental fatigue with carnitine, but a nonsignificant reduction with physical fatigue and fatigue severity index. When considered as a percentage who saw improvement, the carnitine group saw statistically significant improvements for all. Younger (less than 50) participants saw greater effects. There wasn't a statistically significant difference for body composition, fasting glucose, liver enzymes, HbA1c, lipid panel, or thyroid hormones. There weren't notable differences in adverse events.
Los efectos del tratamiento l-carnitina oral en el metabolismo de los lípidos en la sangre y el contenido de grasa corporal en el paciente diabético.
In a randomized, double-blind trial, 46 participants with diabetes took 3 g of l-carnitine daily for 12 weeks. There was a greater reduction in body weight and BMI, but the difference wasn't statistically significant. There was a greater reduction in waist-hip ratio that was statistically significant compared with baseline, while the change wasn't for placebo. Carnitine performed better for fasting glucose and HbA1c but nonsignificantly. Triglycerides were reduced statistically significantly more in the carnitine group whereas total cholesterol, Apo-A1, Apo-B (g/L), and HDL, HDL2, and HDL 3 weren't statistically significant. The weight loss for the carnitine group came more from trunk fat than any of the limbs.
Plasma trimetilamina-n-óxido tras el cese de la suplementación con L-carnitina en mujeres envejecidas saludables
Eighteen female participants visited the laboratory after 24 weeks of taking 1500 mg of L-carnitine-L-tartrate or isonitrogenous placebo per day. They returned 4 and 12 months after cessation of supplementation for more testing. The carnitine group saw substantially higher TMAO concentrations by the end of supplementation, which reverted to the placebo levels after 4 months. There weren't statistically significant differences for blood lipids, though. Levels of immune cells weren't statistically significantly different.
Evaluación de la eficacia de L-carnitina en el tratamiento de la enfermedad hepática grasa no alcohólica entre los pacientes diabéticos: un estudio piloto de doble ciego aleatorio
In a randomized, double-blind pilot study, 60 type 2 diabetes patients with NAFLD took for 750 mg of l-carnitine 3 times daily for 6 months or placebo. AST and ALT shows a statistically significantly greater improvement for the carnitine group, while cholesterol, triglycerides, and HbA1c didn't.
Efecto del complejo de carnitina-orotato en el metabolismo de la glucosa y el hígado graso: un estudio de doble ciego y controlado con placebo
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 52 participants with impaired glucose tolerance and fatty liver took 900 mg of l-carnitine in combination with metformin or placebo in combination with metformin daily for 12 weeks. ALT was the primary outcome, and there was a statistically significantly greater reduction in the carnitine group, but not for AST or ALP. The reduction in hs-CRP and 8-OHdG were also statistically significant, though lipid profile, metabolic markers, blood pressure, and everything else wasn't.
El suplemento de L-carnitina mejoró el estado clínico sin cambiar el estrés oxidativo y el perfil de lípidos en mujeres con la artrosis de la rodilla
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 72 participants with osteoarthritis took 750 mg of l-carnitine tartrate or placebo for 8 weeks. Malondialdehyde and total antioxidant capacity were reduced but the difference compared with placebo wasn't statistically significant. There weren't statistically significant differences for triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, weight, or body mass index.
Comparación entre Orlistat Plus L-Carnitine y Orlistat solo en los parámetros de inflamación en pacientes con diabéticos obesos
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 258 participants with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes and obesity took 2 g of l-carnitine daily with or without orlistat for 1 year. There was a small but statistically significant greater reduction in body weight but not BMI in the carnitine group. HbA1c, fasting glucose, postprandial glucose, and insulin sensitivity were also improved statistically significantly more, while fasting insulin wasn't. LDL and total cholesterol but not HDL or triglycerides were improved significantly more. Adiponectin, but not TNF-a, vaspin, or hs-CRP, was improved significantly more, though the reduction was generally greater for carnitine.
Estudio comparativo para evaluar el efecto de la L-carnitina más glimepirida versus glimepirida sola en la resistencia a la insulina en pacientes diabéticos tipo 2
In a randomized, controlled trial 72 participants with type 2 diabetes took glimepiride alone or with 2 g of l-carnitine daily for 6 months. There was a statistically significant greater reduction in fasting glucose, postprandial glucose, glycated hemoglobin, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, and increase in IRAPe in the carnitine group. TNF-A Visfatin, LDL, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and HDL all improved significantly more. There wasn't a statistically significant difference for BMI or blood pressure.
La l-carnitina mejora la fatiga inducida por ayuno, el hambre y las anomalías metabólicas en pacientes con síndrome metabólico: un estudio controlado aleatorizado
In this randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial, 30 participants with metabolic syndrome took for 7 days. The primary outcome was weight loss, and there was a statistically significant greater reduction in body mass and waist circumference, but not hip circumference. There was also a statistically significant reduction in total cholesterol, but not any other lipid measure. There was a statistically significant greater reduction in fasting insulin and GGT but not fasting glucose, insulin resistance, c-reactive protein, uric acid, free fatty acids, AST, or ALT, though many were close. The carnitine group perceived less hunger and reported less fatigue.
La suplementación con carnitina mejora la flexibilidad metabólica y la formación de acetilcarnitina del músculo esquelético en voluntarios con tolerancia a la glucosa deteriorada: un ensayo controlado aleatorio
In a randomized, double-blind crossover trial, 12 healthy participants and 11 with impaired glucose tolerance took 2000 mg of l-carnitine tartrate for 36 days with a month of washout in between. Fasting glucose, insulin, HbA1c, liver enzymes, and lipid profile didn't show a statistically significant difference between groups for those with glucose tolerance. Metabolic flexibility during a high energy meal test was statistically significantly improved in the carnitine group.
Efectos de la combinación de sibutramina y l-carnitina en comparación con la monoterapia de sibutramina en los parámetros inflamatorios en pacientes diabéticos.
In a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial, 254 participants with type 2 diabetes took sibutramine 10 mg or sibutramine with 2 g of l-carnitine daily for 12 months. There was statistically significantly more improvement in weight, HbA1c, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, and adiponectin compared with the control group. The other outcomes (as seen in the values boxes) were not significantly different, but many showed a trend towards a difference.
Presión arterial y efectos metabólicos de la acetil-L-carnitina en la diabetes tipo 2: diabasi ensayo controlado aleatorizado
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controled trial, 229 participants with hypertension and dyslipidemic type 2 diabetes took 1000 mg of acetyl-l-carnitine twice daily in addition to simvastatin, or only simvastatin for 6 months. The primary outcome was systolic blood pressure, and there wasn't an apparent benefit, nor for diastolic blood pressure, weight, HbA1c, insulin, insulin sensitivity, glucose disposal rate, lipid profile, or kidney function. There weren't notable differences in adverse events.
La glicina propionil-L-carnitina modula la peroxidación lipídica y el óxido nítrico en sujetos humanos
After oral ingestion of Glycine-Propionyl L-Carnitine, markers of lipid peroxidation were significantly reduced at 1g and 3g, although not significantly different between dosages. Nitric Oxide levels were increased with 3g, but did not change with 1g.
Suplementación L-carnitina para adultos con enfermedad renal en etapa final que requiere mantenimiento hemodiálisis: una revisión sistemática y un metanálisis
When assessing all trials in persons on maintenance dialysis using supplementation of L-carnitine (any form) for a duration longer than two weeks, it was confirmed that there was a reduction in LDL cholesterol (not deemed clinically significant but reaching a mean reduction of −5.82mg/dL) and a reduction in C-reactive protein (clinically significant, a reduction of −3.65mg/L) although no other biomarker including those relating to erythropoietin dosage and hematocrit were affected. No adverse effects of L-carnitine supplementation were reported in any trial.
Administración de levocarnitina en sujetos ancianos con fatiga muscular rápida: efecto en la composición corporal, perfil lipídico y fatiga
In elderly persons consuming 2g of L-carnitine daily over a period of 30 days was associated with improvements on blood lipid parameters (ApoE, ApoA, LDL-C, HDL-C) and body composition as well as less fatigue; both mental and physical.
Efecto de la administración oral L-carnitina en la sensibilidad a la insulina y el perfil de lípidos en pacientes con diabetes Mellitus tipo 2
12 type II diabetics were divided into two groups, in which one received 3g of L-Carnitine daily, in three doses of 1g with meals for 4 weeks. No significant changes were seen in basal lipid profile or insulin sensitivity.
In this randomized controlled trial, 230 individuals with acne underwent treatment with isotretinoin (Accutane) for 45 days. Of the 40 who developed myalgia (muscle pain) as a side effect, half received 100mg/kg L-Carnitine and half received a placebo every 24 hours.
El corazón es uno de los músculos más fuertes del cuerpo, ya que trabaja sin parar y de manera muy estable. Pero también puede fallar, debido a una mala alimentación y falta de ejercicio, fumar, infecciones, genes de ''mala suerte'', etc. Es esencial para su salud cuidar la salud de su corazón.